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Our research examines how to communicate the harms of using tobacco products.

Vaping is epidemic in some populations. We study reasons for overuse and how to communicate the harms of e-cigarettes. Funded by NCI an NIDA.

Pictorial warnings are now used on cigarette packs in over 100 countries. Our RCT and meta-analyses show that pictorial warnings can encourage smokers to quit. Funded by FDA and NCI.

Articles

  • Effect of pictorial cigarette pack warnings on changes in smoking behavior: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2016. Brewer, Hall, Parada, Ribisl.  PDF
  • Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Tobacco Control, 2016. Noar, Hall, Pepper, Brewer.  PDF
  • Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions, and beliefs: A systematic review. Tobacco Control, 2014. Pepper, Brewer. PDF
  • Interest in “organic,” “natural,” and “additive-free” cigarettes after hearing about toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke. PLoS One, 2019. Baig, Byron, Pepper, Brewer. PDF
  • Public understanding of cigarette smoke chemicals: Longitudinal study of US adults and adolescents. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2019. Jeong, Noar, Zhang, Mendel, Agans, Boyton, Byron, Baig, Ranney, Ribisl, Brewer. PDF
  • Advancing tobacco product warning labels research methods and theory: A summary of a grantee meeting held by the US National Cancer Institute. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2018. Thrasher, Brewer.  PDF
  • Brand switching and toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke: A national study. PLoS ONE, 2018. Mendel, Baig, Hall, Jeong, Morgan, Noar, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • Cigarette pack messages about toxic chemicals: a randomised clinical trial. Tobacco Control, 2018. Brewer, Jeong, Mendel, Hall, Zhang, Parada, Boynton, Noar, Baig, Morgan, Ribisl.  PDF
  • Effective formats for communicating risks from cigarette smoke chemicals. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 2018. Byron, Lazard, Peters, Schmidt, Brewer.  PDF
  • Identifying principles for effective messages about chemicals in cigarette smoke. Preventive Medicine, 2018. Noar, Kelley, Boynton, Morgan, Hall, Mendel, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • Impact of modified risk tobacco product claims on beliefs of US adults and adolescents. Tobacco Control, 2018. El-Toukhy, Baig, Jeong, Byron, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • Increasing effectiveness of messages about chemicals in cigarette smoke. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 2018. Morgan, Moracco, Mendel, Kelley, Noar, Brewer.  PDF
  • IQOS reduced exposure claims mislead consumers to believe the product is less harmful. Comment for FDA Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. 2018. Byron, Baig, Jeong, Ribisl, Hall, Brewer.  PDF
  • “Organic,” “Natural,” and “Additive-Free” cigarettes: Comparing the effects of advertising claims and disclaimers on perceptions of harm. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2018. Baig, Byron, Lazard, Brewer.  PDF
  • Public misperception that very low nicotine cigarettes are less carcinogenic. Tobacco Control, 2018. Byron, Jeong, Abrams, Brewer.  PDF
  • Communicating about cigarette smoke constituents: An experimental comparison of two messaging strategies. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2017. Baig, Byron, Boynton, Brewer, Ribisl.  PDF
  • Communicating tobacco product information to the public. Food Drug Law Journal, 2017. Berman, Byron, Lazard, Peters. Brewer.  PDF
  • Effective message elements for disclosures about chemicals in cigarette smoke. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2017. Kelley, Boynton, Noar, Morgan, Mendel, Ribisl, Stepanov, Brewer.  PDF
  • Erratum to: Understanding how perceptions of tobacco constituents and the FDA relate to effective and credible tobacco risk messaging: a national phone survey of U.S. adults, 2014-2015. BMC Public Health, 2017. Boynton, Brewer, Noar, Ribisl.  PDF
  • How hearing about harmful chemicals affects smokers’ interest in dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Preventive Medicine, 2017. Pepper, Byron, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • How people think about the chemicals in cigarette smoke: A systematic review. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2017. Morgan, Byron, Baig, Brewer.  PDF
  • A response from Morgan, Myron, Baig, Stepanov, and Brewer. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2017. Morgan, Byron, Baig, Brewer.  PDF
  • Icons for health effects of cigarette smoke: A test of semiotic type. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2017. Lazard, Schmidt, Vu, Byron, Boynton, Brewer.  PDF
  • Website designs for communicating about chemicals in cigarette smoke. Health Communication, 2017. Lazard, Byron, Vu, Schmidt, Brewer.  PDF
  • Public understanding of cigarette smoke constituents: Three US surveys. Tobacco Control, 2016. Brewer, Morgan, Baig, Mendel, Boynton, Pepper, Byron, Noar, Agans, Ribisl.  PDF
  • Understanding how perceptions of tobacco constituents and the FDA relate to effective and credible tobacco risk messaging: A national phone survey of U.S. adults, 2014-2015. BMC Public Health, 2016. Boynton, Agans, Brewer, Ribisl. PDF
  • “My first thought was croutons:” Perceptions of cigarettes and cigarette smoke constituents among adult smokers and nonsmokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2016. Moracco, Morgan, Mendel, Hall, Brewer. PDF
  • Smokers’ and non-smokers’ beliefs about harmful tobacco constituents: Implications for FDA communication efforts. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014. Hall, Ribisl, Brewer. PDF
  • Impact of e-cigarette health warnings on motivation to vape and smoke. Tobacco Control, 2019. Brewer, Jeong, Hall, Baig, Mendel, Lazard, Noar, Kameny, Ribisl. PDF
  • E-cigarette health harm awareness and discouragement: Implications for health communication. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2019. Rohde, Noar, Mendel, Hall, Baig, Ribisl, Brewer. PDF
  • Adolescents have unfavorable opinions of adolescents who use e-cigarettes. PLoS One, 2018. McKelvey, Popova, Pepper, Brewer.
  • Symptoms during adolescents’ first use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes: A pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research in Public Health, 2017. Chen, Hall, Parada, Peebles, Brodar, Brewer.  PDF
  • Adolescents’ interest in trying flavored e-cigarettes. Tobacco Control, 2016 (in press). Pepper, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • Social interactions as a source of information about e-cigarettes: A study of U.S. adult smokers. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 2016. Hall, Pepper, Morgan, Brewer.  PDF
  • Physicians’ counseling of adolescents regarding e-cigarette use. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2015. Pepper, Gilkey, Brewer. PDF
  • How risky is it to use e-cigarettes? Smokers’ beliefs about their health risks from using novel and traditional tobacco products. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2015. Pepper, Emery, Ribisl, Brewer. PDF
  • Effects of advertisements on smokers’ interest in trying e-cigarettes: The roles of product comparison and visual cues. Tobacco Control, 2014. Pepper, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • Reasons for starting and stopping electronic cigarette use. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2014. Pepper, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • How U.S. adults find out about electronic cigarettes: Implications for public health messages. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2014. Pepper, Ribisl, Brewer. PDF
  • Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions, and beliefs: A systematic review. Tobacco Control, 2014. Pepper, Brewer.  PDF
  • Effects of advertisements on smokers’ interest in trying e-cigarettes: The roles of product comparison and visual cues. Tobacco Control, 2014. Pepper, Ribisl, Brewer. PDF
  • Adolescent males’ awareness of and willingness to try electronic cigarettes.  Journal of Adolescent Health, 2013. Pepper, Reiter, McRee, Gilkey, Brewer.  PDF
  • Conversations about pictorial cigarette pack warnings: Theoretical mechanisms of influence. Social Science & Medicine, 2018. Morgan, Golden, Noar, Ribisl, Jeong, Hall, Brewer.  PDF
  • Frequency and content of conversations about pictorial warnings on cigarette packs. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2018. Morgan, Noar, Ribisl, Golden, Brewer.  PDF
  • Negative affect, message reactance, and perceived risk: How do pictorial cigarette pack warnings change quit intentions? Tobacco Control, 2018. Hall, Sheeran, Noar, Boynton, Ribisl, Parada, Brewer.  PDF
  • Pictorial cigarette pack warnings increase quitting: A comment on Kok et al. Health Psychology Review, 2018. Brewer, Hall, Noar. PDF
  • Placing health warnings on e-cigarettes: A standardized protocol. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018. Mendel, Hall, Baig, Jeong, Brewer.  PDF
  • Public support for pictorial warnings on cigarette packs: An experimental study of US smokers. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2018. Hall, Marteau, Sunstein, Ribisl, Noar, Brewer.  PDF
  • “That’s probably what my mama’s lungs look like”: How adolescent children react to pictorial warnings on their parents’ cigarette packs. BMC Public Health, 2018. Brodar, Byron, Peebles, Hall, Pepper, Brewer.  PDF
  • Understanding why pictorial cigarette pack warnings increase quit attempts. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2018. Brewer, Parada, Hall, Boynton, Noar, Ribisl.  PDF
  • Why smokers avoid cigarette pack risk messages: Two randomized clinical trials in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 2018. Hall, Mendel, Noar, Brewer.  PDF
  • A brief measure of reactance to health warnings. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2017. Hall, Sheeran, Noar, Ribisl, Boynton, Brewer.  PDF
  • Trajectories of responses to pictorial cigarette pack warnings. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2017. Parada, Hall, Boynton, Brewer.  PDF
  • Effects of strengthening cigarette pack warnings on attention and message processing: A systematic review. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 2016. Noar, Francis, Bridges, Brewer, Ribisl.  PDF
  • The impact of strengthening cigarette pack warnings: Systematic review of longitudinal observational studies. Social Science & Medicine, 2016. Noar, Ribisl, Brewer. PDF
  • Reactance to health warnings scale: Development and validation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2016. Hall, Noar, Ribisl, Bach, Brewer. PDF
  • Effect of pictorial cigarette pack warnings on changes in smoking behavior: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2016. Brewer, Hall, Parada, Ribisl. PDF
  • Effects of pictorial cigarette pack warnings on changes in smoking behaviors: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2016. Brewer, Hall, Noar, Parada, Bach, Ribisl.  PDF
  • Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Tobacco Control, 2016. Noar, Hall, Pepper, Brewer. PDF
  • Adolescents’ responses to pictorial warnings on their parents’ cigarette packs. Journal of Adolescent Health, 2016 (in press). Peebles, Hall, Pepper, Byron, Brewer.  PDF
  • Social interactions sparked by pictorial warnings on cigarette packs. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2015. Hall, Peebles, Bach, Brewer. PDF
  • Pictorial cigarette pack warnings have important effects. American Journal of Public Health, 2015. Noar, Hall, Brewer. PDF
  • Testing warning messages on smokers’ cigarette packages: A standardized protocol. Tobacco Control, 2015. Brewer, Hall, Peebles, Ribisl. PDF
  • Responses of young adults to graphic warning labels for cigarette packages. Tobacco Control, 2015. Cameron, Pepper, Brewer. PDF
  • Non-smoking male adolescents’ reactions to cigarette warnings. PLoS One, 2013. Pepper, Reiter, McRee, Brewer. PDF
  • Experimental study on warning statements for cigarette graphic health warnings: Response to FDA request for comments. Comment submitted on Federal Register Docket No. FDA–2017–N–093, 2017. Hall, Ribisl, Noar, Brewer. PDF
  • UNC Perceived Message Effectiveness: Development and validation of a brief scale. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2018. Baig, Noar, Gottfredson, Boynton, Ribisl, Brewer.  PDF
  • Attitudes toward FDA regulation of newly deemed tobacco products. Tobacco Regulatory Science, 2017. Kowitt, Goldstein, Schmidt, Hall, Brewer.  PDF
  • Social identity and support for counteracting tobacco company marketing that targets vulnerable populations. Social Science & Medicine, 2017. Baig, Pepper, Morgan, Brewer.  PDF
  • Adolescents’ and adults’ perceptions of “natural,” “organic,” and “additive-free” cigarettes and required disclaimers. Tobacco Control, 2016. Byron, Baig, Brewer. PDF
  • Recruiting diverse smokers: Enrollment yields and cost. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 2016. Brodar, Hall, Parada, Brewer.  PDF

Funding Disclosure

Our tobacco control research has been funded by FDA, NCI and NIA. Dr. Brewer has been a paid consultant for litigation against tobacco companies and has been a paid member of an advisory board for FDA.